Acceptance Criteria Those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions which must be met before project deliverables are accepted.
Activity A component of work performed during the course of a project.
Agile Project Management “Agile“ means that management and controlling of projects and processes are designed dynamically and flexibly. This term accentuates the positive aspects of low planning and leading intensity. “Agile Project Management“ is a generic term for different procedure models in software development, such as Scrum.
An estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity. It is frequently used to estimate a parameter whenn there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (e.g. in the early phases).
Arrow Diagramming
Method (ADM)
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start, and the head represents the finish of the schedule activity. (The length of the arrow does not represent the expected duration of the schedule activity.) Schedule activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the schedule activities are expected to be performed.
Assumptions Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.
Audit An audit or project audit is the examination of the results and the quality of the implementation of a project. The executing authority is an independent, neutral auditor.


Bar chart Same as a GANTT diagram.
Baseline The approved time phased plan (for a project, a work breakdown structure component, a work package, or a schedule activity), plus or minus approved project scope, cost, schedule, and technical changes. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g. cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline).
A method of estimating a component of work. The work is decomposed into more detail. An estimate is prepared of what is needed to meet the requirements of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for the component of work.


Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)® A project manager certified as a CAPM® by the Project Management Institute (PMI)®.
Claim Management This term includes all activities that conduce to the identification, documentation and enforcement of claims towards the contracting party.
Change Request Requests to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedures, modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules. Requests for a change can be direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally or contractually mandated or optional.
Communication Communication, which means the exchange between all involved persons in the project and especially within the project team, is an essential factor for successful project management.
Conflicts We call a situation a conflict if two elements are at the same time contradicting or incompatible. Conflicts are disturbances in the chain of action, are a strain, have a tendency to escalate and result in a pressure to solve them.
Constraint The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to the project that will affect the performance of the project or a process. For example, a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project schedule that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of fixed imposed dates.
Crisis Management Crisis Management includes crisis prevention, crisis identification at an early stage and crisis resolution.
Critical Activity All activities on the critical path. These activities must be completed on schedule. A delay in these activities will directly affect the project end. Critical activities have no float.
Critical Path Generally, but not always, the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project. Generally, it is the longest path through the project.


Deliverable Any unique and verifiable product, or result, that must be produced to complete a
project. Deliverables are often subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer.
Duration  The time period from the start of an activity to its completion. Sometimes referred to as “elapsed time“. The duration may be specified in different ways. Frequently used are “workdays” or calendar days” or “weeks”.


Early finisch (EF) The earliest point in time at which an activity can be finished, based on the proceeding activities and their duration.
Early schedule A schedule indicating the early start and early finish of each activity. This is the schedule most often referred to when planning and pursuing projects.
Early start (ES) The earliest point in time at which an activity can be started, based on the proceeding activity.
Earned Value
Management (EVM)
A management methodology for integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for objectively measuring project performance and progress. Performance is measured by determining the earned value and comparing it to the actual cost. Progress is measured by comparing the earned value to the planned value.
Effort The amount of time required by an individual project member (or members) to complete an activity. Effort is usually expressed as “staff hours”, “person days” or “person weeks”. In the past, the term “man month” was used.
Elapsed time See “Duration”
End date The time at which intermediate objectives or the project objective are achieved.


Float The amount of time by which an activity can be delayed without affecting the end date of the project. The float corresponds to the difference between the “early start” and the “late finish”.
Forecast Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.


Gantt diagram
(Bar diagram)
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as
date-placed horizontal bars.
GPM The acronym GPM stands for German Association for Project Management.


 Harvard Model The Harvard Model is a negotiation concept. A main component of this concept is to distinguish between the factual and the personal level. Proper negotiating on a supporting personal basis is the core idea in this concept. Successful negotiating is about negotiating properly and considering the interests of both or all negotiating parties. The negotiation’s outcome will be accepted by all people involved.


Initialization Initialization is the first project management phase in which responsibilities are clarified and objectives are outlined.
IPMA Competence Baseline The IPMA Competence Baseline (ICB) is the international project management standard of the IPMA – International Project Management Association.



Kanban Kanban is a agile method of project management.
Kickoff A kickoff meeting serves to motivate all members of a project team and to present the project or step by step plan at the beginning of a project or a single project phase.


Late finisch (LF) The latest point in time at which an activity can be finished without affecting the project end date.
Late schedule A schedule indicating the late start and the late finish of each activity. This schedule is often used in conjunction with the “early schedule”.
Late start (LS) The latest point in time at which an activity can be started without affecting the end date of the overall project.
Leadership Leadership ist one of the basic tasks of project management and helps to reach the project goal. This task is carried out by a project manager.
Lessons Learned Lessons Learned serve to analyse the the success factors and problematic areas of the completed project and therefor offers massive learning potential for future projects.
Lose-Lose-Situation A situation in which a favorable outcome is impossible and in which both partners damage each other.


Man days, man
The conventional term for work effort. Today it is normally called “person days”, etc.
Milestone Schedule A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones.
Moderation Facilitation is a method to plan, structure and lead a work group, project team, meeting or conference so that the potential capacity of all the involved is optimally achieved. The facilitator arranges and manages the working process of the group largely without a hierarchy and is in charge of the main responsibility for the use of the agreed methods and for the approach during the working process.
Multi-project Management Multi-project management is about controlling lots of projects simultaneously within one organization. Mostly the projects are independently of the others, but realized by the same persons. That’s why all projects are linked by the available resources.


Network Diagram Typically the Precedence Diagram is referred to as the standard network diagram.
Non-critical Activities Activities that are not on the critical path. These activities have a certain float by which they can be delayed without affecting the project end date.


Objective Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
OPM3®-Analysis The OPM3®-Analysis (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) is a standard which is issued by the largest organization in project management worldwide, the PMI®. OPM3® defines project management with the help of so-called „Best Practices“. There are about 600 practices which are proven and recognized processes. They make a decisive contribution to a lasting and repeatable project success.


Path Sequential arrangement of activities connected by logical dependencies.
PDU A PDU is a measured unit for the evaluation of development and professional activity in the field of project management. One typically gains one (1) PDU for every hour of planned and structured development work or a similar activity.
PM Delta-Analysis PM Delta is an analysis model which has been developed in close conjunction with the International Project Management Association (IPMA). This maturity model is also highly comprehensive and detailed and serves to optimize fine details in a similar way to the OPM3®.
Portfoliomanagement Project portfolio management makes it easier to integrate projects in your company structure. Focusing on high-relevance projects saves valuable resources, reduces costs and helps you to achieve your strategic goals more effectively. Strong portfolio management enables you to manage and coordinate programs and projects efficiently and responsibly across your entire business network — and to exploit the synergies between projects.
Method (PDM)
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes. Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Product Any hardware, software, service, documentation, etc. Thus, a product may be the result of a project and the project is the path to the product.
Product Life Cycle A collection of generally sequential, non-overlapping product phases whose names are determined by the manufacturing and control needs of the organization. Generally, a project life cycle is contained within one or more product life cycles.
Management, planning and coordination of products and their quality.
Product Scope The features and functions that characterize a product, service or result.
Program Management Program management ist he centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits. It involves aligning multiple projects to achieve the program goals and allows for optimized or integrated cost, schedule, and effort.
Project A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Project Charter A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Leader, Project Manager The person whose task and responsibility it is to plan, execute and successfully complete the project. These terms are used in a different way in some organizations, for example to give project managers a higher hierarchy, larger projects or leadership of team members.
Project Life Cycle A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project. A life cycle can be documented with a methodology.
Project Management The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project Management
Body of Knowledge
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. The PMBOK® Guide is a document that describes processes, methods, tools and techniques in project management that are generally recognized as good practice. It is a kind of standard issued by the Project Management Institute (PMI)®.
Project Management
Office (PMO)
An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project.
Project Management
Professional (PMP)®
A project manager certified as a PMP® by the Project Management Institute (PMI)®.
Project Organization
A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
Project Schedule The planned dates for performing schedule activities and the planned dates for meeting schedule milestones.
Project Scope The work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Project Team All the project team members, including the project manager.
PSC100-Analysis The PSC 100 analysis is a practical and fast analysis tool which combines and checks the most important elements of OPM3® and PM Delta. With its 100 questions, you will gain a quick overview regarding the status of the PM maturity in your organization and recommendations for improvements.


PMP,  PMI and PMBOK are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.


Recertification In order to ensure the ongoing professional development of Project Management Professionals (PMPs)® and Certified Associates in Project Management (CAPMs)® and to keep the certification up to date, certification as a PMP® is only valid for 3 years and as CAPM® for 5 years. In order to be able to permanently guarantee your PMP® status, you must be recertified as a PMP® every three years. This requires verification of continuous involvement in PM.
Resource General term referring to skilled human resources, equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds.
Resource Histogram A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods.
Risk An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a negative effect on a project’s objectives.
Risk Mitigation A risk response planning technique that seeks to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk to below an acceptable threshold.
Risk Transference A risk response planning technique that shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.


Scope See “Product Scope” and “Project Scope”.
Scrum Scrum is one of the best known methods of agile project management and is especially applied within software development.
Specification A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behaviour, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service.
Sponsor The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.
Stakeholder Persons and organizations such as customers, sponsors, performing organization and the public, that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. They may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.




Virtual Team  A virtual team is a group of people who have the same objective, different but interdepend roles and tasks, are separated by time and space and work together, partly by the help of technology.
Win-Lose-Situation One partner benefits at another’s expense.
Win-Win-Situation It is a win-win situation when two (or more) partners benefit from a common project.
Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS)
A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. The WBS is decomposed into work packages.
A unit of measurement for the estimated effort. The number of days or hours required by an individual team member to complete an activity.